"Fake News" exists within a larger system of mis- and disinformation. Misinformation is defined as, "Wrong, or misleading information; the action of misinforming someone" (Oxford English Dictionary); and disinformation is defined as, "The dissemination of deliberately false information, esp. when supplied by a government or its agent to a foreign power or to the media, with the intention of influencing the policies or opinions of those who receive it" (Oxford English Dictionary). "Fake News", then, is those news stories that are inherently false and/or fabricated, having no quotes, sources, or verifiable facts. One form may be “clickbait” stories which are written for economic incentives (the writer profits based on the number of people who click on the story).
"7 Types of Mis/DisInformation" - created by Claire Wardle of FirstDraftNews.com
Real News about Fake News -- created by Harvard's Neiman Lab, includes a weekly update on the "growing stream of reporting on and data about fake news, misinformation, partisan content, and news literacy."
Fake News & the Spread of Misinformation -- created by Harvard's Shorenstein Center, Journalist's Resource, as a brief overview and list of research studies related to "fake news."
False & Mis-leading, Clickbaity, or Satirical "News" Sources -- created by Melissa Zimdars, professor of Communication and Media, at Merrimack College, a list of suggested strategies and techniques for analyzing news sources, along with a list of misleading or satirical news sources.
Center for News Literacy -- created by Stony Brook University as a resource list to help students develop critical thinking skills in order to evaluate the reliability and credibility of information.
Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning -- This document is an executive summary of the 2016 Stanford research study evaluating students' ability to assess the credibility of online information. The findings are "bleak".
About "Fake" News -- a selection of articles discussing the production & dissemination of fake news, news consumption, and the politicization of the news media. f
FactCheck.org -- a project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center, for the purpose of checking the accuracy of statements, including advertisements, from politicians, pundits and special interest groups.
ProPublica -- an independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest.
Snopes.com -- Fact-checking site for "for urban legends, folklore, myths, rumors, and misinformation."
Adapted from the "Fake News," Lies and Propaganda: How to Sort Fact from Fiction Research Guide at the University of Michigan Libraries.