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APA Basics (6th edition)

APA citation examples for frequently used sources
NOTE:  for sources not listed here see the APA manual  or

CAUTION:  do not copy the spacing and indentation formatting shown below.  The webpage editor limits our ability to follow APA guidelines.  Make sure all items in YOUR APA reference list are double spaced, hanging indent, 12 pt. Times Roman font!

1. Journal article (print or library database)
2. Journal article (website, with a doi)
3. Journal article (website, no doi)
4. Book
5. & 6. Company website
7. Dissertation
8. Test, Assessment, or survey
9. Video from the Counseling & Therapy database
10. Chapter from an edited book
11. YouTube video


  1. Journal article in print or from a library subscription database

Lastname, Firstinitial, Second initial. (Pub year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume (issue), pages.

      2. Journal article online from a website with a DOI assigned

Lastname, FirstInitial, SecondInitial. (Pub year). Title of article. Title of website or journal, volume (issue), pages. doi: xx:xxxx-

3. No DOI (digital object identifier) is available, provide the home URL of the website where document is hosted.

Lastname, FirstInitial, SecondInitial. (Pub year). Title of article. Title of website or journal, volume (issue), pages.  Retrieved from     

4. Basic book, one author

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Note: For "Location," you should always list the city and the state using the two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY).
         5. Company website according to APA 6th edition

The Publications Manual for APA Style, 6th edition, does not provide guidelines for citing general web pagesPlease refer to the examples provided in your Annotated Bibliography Sample, use, or get help from a librarian.

       6. Company website without author, according to

Rainbow Books. (2007). Retrieved May 4, 2010 from

7. Dissertation or thesis (example)

Shaw, T. C. (2011). Grade retention and social promotion among middle schools students. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from PQDT Open .  (AAT 3453517)

8. Reference book or website entry for a testing instrument, scale, survey, or definition from  (example)

Beier, E. G., & Sternberg, D. P. (2000). Beier-Sternbergn discord questionnaire (DQ). In K. Corcoran & J. Fischer (Eds.),      Measures for clinical practice (3rd ed. pp. 81-83). New York: Free Press.

Instrument author, A. (Date Published). Instrument name. Measurement Instrument Database for the Social
 Retrieved  [Date], from

Osteoperosis. (2005). In R.W. Langford & J.D. Thompson (Eds.), Mosby's handbook of diseases (3rd ed., pp. 439-441).
St Louis: Elsevier Mosby.

9. Video from the Counseling and Therapy Video database

Author or Producer Last Name, First Name. (Producer). (Publication Date). Title of the video [Video file]. Available from http://-list basic access url for producer or publisher.

10. Chapter from an edited book

Author of chapter. (Pub. Date). Title of chapter. In First Initials Last Name of editor(s) (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Place: Publisher.

Denton, N.A. (2006). Segregation and discrimination in house. In R. G. Bratt, M.E. Stone, & C. Harman (Eds.), A right to housing: Foundation of a new social agenda (pp.61-81). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

11. Video from YouTube - see the APA blog for instructions

 Wondering what we mean by an "annotated" bibliography? 
OWL, Online Writing Lab at Purdue University