Copying of copyrighted materials for student learning and research use without written permission may occur in the following instances:
Single copying for teachers
Single copies may be made of any of the following by or for teachers at their individual request for scholarly research or use in teaching or preparation to teach a class:
Multiple copies for student learning use
Multiple copies (not to exceed more than one copy per student in a course) may be made by or for the teacher giving the course for student learning use or discussion; provided that the following three criteria are met:
Brevity: Either a complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words, (usually varies 3-8 pages depending on size of page and type) or an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10 percent of the work, whichever is greater.
Spontaneity: The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual teacher, and the inspiration and decision to use the work.The moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.
Cumulative effect: Copying of the material is for only one course in the school in which the copies are made.
Permission from copyright holders is often needed when creating course materials, research papers, and web sites. You need to obtain permission when you use a work in a way that infringes on the exclusive rights granted to a copyright holder (i.e. outside the boundaries of fair use).
Steps that need to be followed to obtain permission to use copyrighted material:
For more information, visit the Copyright Clearnce Center's Obtaining Permission page.
Intellectual Property Awareness Assessment
Do you have questions about how or if you should protect something which you have authored? This assessment tool will step you through.
The IP Awareness Assessment, developed under the joint efforts of United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and National Institute of Standards and Technology/Manufacturing Extension Partnership (NIST/MEP), allows you to assess your intellectual property awareness. Following the completion of the assessment, you will receive a customized training material.