Note refers to the footnotes in the text of a paper.
Shortened note refers to footnotes for authors that have already been cited in the paper.
Bibliography refers to the list of references at the end of the paper.
Examples taken from the Turabian Manual Quick Guide
1. Katie Kitamura, A Separation (New York: Riverhead Books, 2017), 25.
2. Sharon Sassler and Amanda Jayne Miller, Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017), 114.
3. Kitamura, Separation, 91–92.
4. Sassler and Miller, Cohabitation Nation, 205.
Kitamura, Katie. A Separation. New York: Riverhead Books, 2017.
Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships. Oakland: University of California Press, 2017.
In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.
1. Mary Rowlandson, “The Narrative of My Captivity,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.
2. Rowlandson, “Captivity,” 48.
Rowlandson, Mary. “The Narrative of My Captivity.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 19–56. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes or, if possible, track down a version with fixed page numbers.
1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, trans. Constance Garnett, ed. William Allan Neilson (New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444, https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.
2. Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 88, ProQuest Ebrary.
3. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.
4. Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, 504–5.
5. Schlosser, Fast Food Nation, 100.
6. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.
Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. ProQuest Ebrary.
1. Guadalupe Navarro-Garcia, “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016), 44, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
2. Navarro-Garcia, “Social Justice Values,” 125–26.
Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
1. Ashley Hope Pérez, “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau,” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 874, https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.
2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
4. Pérez, “Material Morality,” 880–81.
5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Pérez, Ashley Hope. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau.” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 872–98. https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.
7. Jesse N. Weber et al., “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite,” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 45, https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.
8. Weber et al., “Resist Globally,” 48–49.
Weber, Jesse N., Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I. Erin, Natalie C. Steinel, Lei Ma, and Daniel I. Bolnick. “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite.” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
1. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
2. Erin Anderssen, “Through the Eyes of Generation Z,” Globe and Mail(Toronto), June 25, 2016, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.
3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.
4. Vinson Cunningham, “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English,” New Yorker, May 15, 2017, 85.
5. Dara Lind, “Moving to Canada, Explained,” Vox, September 15, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.
6. Manjoo, “Snap.”
7. Anderssen, “Generation Z.”
8. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”
9. Cunningham, “Black English,” 86.
10. Lind, “Moving to Canada.”
Anderssen, Erin. “Through the Eyes of Generation Z.” Globe and Mail(Toronto), June 25, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.
Cunningham, Vinson. “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English.” New Yorker, May 15, 2017.
Lind, Dara. “Moving to Canada, Explained.” Vox, September 15, 2016. http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.
Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.
Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.
11. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”
Web pages and other website content can be cited as shown here. For a source that does not list a date of publication, posting, or revision, include an access date (as in the Columbia example).
2. “History,” Columbia University, accessed May 15, 2017, http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.
4. Columbia University, “History.”
Columbia University. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.
1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
2. Beyoncé, “Sorry,” directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles, June 22, 2016, music video, 4:25, https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.
3. Stamper, interview.
4. Beyoncé, “Sorry.”
Beyoncé. “Sorry.” Directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles. June 22, 2016. Music video, 4:25. https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.
Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed or to include a link. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.
Sloane Crosley offers the following advice: “How to edit: Attack a sentence. Write in the margins. Toss in some arrows. Cross out words. Rewrite them. Circle the whole mess and STET” (@askanyone, Twitter, May 8, 2017).
1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
3. Souza, “President Obama.”
4. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”
Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Personal interviews, correspondence, and other types of personal communications—including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media—are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.
2. Interview with home health aide, July 31, 2017.